Paper代写:论文抄袭分几种情况?你中招了没?如何避免论文抄袭?

直接照抄他人的想法并且当做自己的文章上交,这是最简单的论文抄袭行为。但是你可能对其他类型的论文抄袭并不太熟悉。实际上,这些形式更微妙的论文抄袭形式更为常见。今天我们为大家介绍Paper代写中如何避免抄袭,帮助大家做好论文查重

在学术写作中,如果没有在论文中充分说明文献来源,而从他人处获取任何想法或者语言都会被认为抄袭。无论来源是有出版作品的作者、另一名学生,或者是没有明确作者的网站,还是任何其他人,采用他人的成果而没有给出来源就是抄袭,而且这在所有的学术情况下都是不被接受的。抄袭行为不管是故意为之或者偶然发生,你都需要承担责任。

现在我们都可以轻松地在网上查找各种类型的信息,这为我们查找资料提供了很多方便。但是这也意味着我们在使用在线资源时,需要更谨慎地保存获取信息的来源。如果你直接从某个电子文件里直接复制粘贴了内容,或者你从多个网站上提取信息,但没有仔细记录,那么你都会造成论文抄袭。

在这里强调一下,我们需要把每一个网页都认作是一个带有作者的文档,因此使用网站上的信息,我们也必须在论文里面正确引用每个网站。举个例子,比如你在论文中引用Steven Pinker的书《The Language Instinct》你可能会很自然地认为需要在论文中加上明确的引用信息。但是,如果你从Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Web site网站上找到一些类似的信息,你可能会觉得不需要提供引用信息了。 即使和一篇印刷文章相比,网站上的文章我们可能不太容易找到作者的信息,或者根本没有提供作者的信息,你也有责任做好正确的引用。无论文献的来源是什么,或者文献的作者是否明显,你始终都需要提供文献的来源。

直接照抄他人的文章并且当做自己的文章上交,这是最明显最简单的抄袭。这种情况我们就不在这里多做解释了。但是你可能对其他类型的论文抄袭并不太熟悉。实际上,这些形式更微妙的论文抄袭形式更为常见。所以你需要理解所有的论文抄袭形式,并且认真负责地做好论文写作中的每一步,来避免这些错误。

1)Paper代写:避免逐字逐句地抄袭 Verbatim plagiarism

如果你从另一个来源逐字逐句地复制到你自己的论文中,那么你就是犯了Verbatim plagiarism的错误。正确的方法是使用双引号进行直接引用,并给出作者信息。或者是用自己的语言表达原文的意思,同时给出作者信息。现在我们来看几个例子。

原文:

Political transitions brought about by the collapse of authoritarian rule, democratization, or political reforms also make states particularly prone to violence.28 The emergence and rise of exclusionary national ideologies, such as ethnic nationalism and religious fundamentalism, can be destabilizing as well. The emergence of dehumanizing ideologies, which literally deny the humanity of other ethnic groups, is particularly dangerous because it is often the precursor to genocidal slaughter.29

–Brown Michael E. “The Causes of Internal Conflict: An Overview.” Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Ed. Michael E. Brown et al. Cambridge: MIT, 2001. 14. Print.

抄袭版本:

可以看到虽然这段话里面有学生自己写作的句子,但是斜体部分的句子是从原文直接照抄的。即使原文中的部分句子被删掉了,但是剩下的句子还是逐字逐句照抄的。

In the case of Rwanda, both overt ethnic discrimination and a weak state led to genocide. The state had not protected the civil liberties of the Tutsis, thus failing to uphold true democratic principles. In fact, political transitions brought about by the collapse of authoritarian rule, democratization, or political reforms also make states particularly prone to violence. The emergence and rise of exclusionary national ideologies, such as ethnic nationalism and religious fundamentalism, can be destabilizing as well. The emergence of dehumanizing ideologies is often the precursor to genocidal slaughter.

符合学术规范的版本 #1(带有引用信息的直接引用)

这个段落里面学生使用了直接引用,并且给出了引用信息(此处使用的是MLA引用格式),这种情况,我们就是给了原作者足够的Credit。另外,因为在句子正文中已经提到了作者的姓氏,所以在括号里面只需要包含页码就可以。

In the case of Rwanda, both overt ethnic discrimination and a weak state led to genocide. The state had not protected the civil liberties of the Tutsis, thus failing to uphold true democratic principles. In fact, Brown notes that “political transitions brought about by the collapse of authoritarian rule, democratization, or political reforms also make states particularly prone to violence. The emergence and rise of exclusionary national ideologies, such as ethnic nationalism and religious fundamentalism, can be destabilizing as well. The emergence of dehumanizing ideologies… is often the precursor to genocidal slaughter” (14).

符合学术规范的版本 #2 (带有引用信息的Paraphrase)

在这个版本中,学生用自己的语言表达了原作者的观点,但是明确给出了原作者的信息 (“Michael Brown suggests…”) ,同时给出了引用来源的页码(此处使用的是MLA引用格式)。

In the case of Rwanda, both overt ethnic discrimination and a weak state led to genocide. The state had not protected the civil liberties of the Tutsis, thus failing to uphold true democratic principles. In fact, as Michael Brown suggests, violence often results from the end of an authoritarian government and its replacement with a more democratic society. Violence is also more likely when an authoritarian society gives way to ethnic nationalism or religious fundamentalism. When emerging ideologies dehumanize certain ethnic groups, the conditions are also ripe for genocide (14).

2)Paper代写:避免东拼西凑地抄袭 Mosaic plagiarism

如果你从一个文献或者几个文献复制了好几处的内容,但是没有给出引用信息,那你这就是犯了mosaic plagiarism的错误。有的时候,这种错误并不是你有意为之。你可能只是在收集文献时,因为没有仔细地记录笔记,所以弄混了你自己个人的想法和原文的信息,因此犯了论文抄袭的错误。所以为了避免论文抄袭,我们不仅需要有一个正确的意识,同时也要养成一个良好的学术习惯。在research和写论文的整个过程中,你都需要明确区分你自己的想法和其他作者的想法。如果你仔细地记录了他人的想法,分清你自己想法和原文的不同之处,并且严格遵循正确的引用方式,你就可以避免mosaic plagiarism。

原文 #1:

An episode of Scrubs off a DVD (without commercials) is only 22 minutes long. A 22-minute episode followed by a 5-minute break and a 22-minute discussion will be more engaging and more memorable to the students than a lecture…

One need not agree with all elements of the story for it to have educational value. What is accurate and what is inaccurate are grist for a good discussion, and encourages student participation more than any article that just tells them what to believe. Furthermore, watching people and hearing their voices provide much better tests of clinical skills of observation than merely reading words on a page. One must see a patient’s body language and hear her tone of voice in order to learn how to observe (or how to hone one’s skills).

–Spike, Jeffrey. (2008). Television viewing and ethical reasoning: Why watching Scrubs does a better job than most bioethics classes. The American Journal of Bioethics, 8(12), 11-13.

原文 #2:

Indeed, of the more than 3500 hours of instruction during medical school, an average of less than 60 hours are devoted to all of bioethics, health law and health economics combined. Most of the instruction is during the preclinical courses, leaving very little instructional time when students are experiencing bioethical or legal challenges during their hands-on, clinical training. More than 60 percent of the instructors in bioethics, health law, and health economics have not published since 1990 on the topic they are teaching.

–Persad, G.C., Elder, L., Sedig, L., Flores, L., & Emanuel, E. (2008) The current state of medical school education in bioethics, health law, and health economics. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 36, 89-94.

抄袭版本

实际上这句话中的信息都是来源于Persad这个作者,但是因为这个学生只是某一句中指出了原作者的信息,所以整段话看起来会让读者觉得是学生自己的想法。

In order to advocate the use of the sitcom Scrubs as part of the medical education system, it is also important to look at the current bioethical curriculum. Medical school curriculum does not focus adequately on the moral issues that doctors face in the clinic. In fact, in more than 3500 hours of training that students undergo in medical school, only about 60 hours are focused on bioethics, health law, and health economics. It is also problematic that students receive this training before they actually go on to their hands-on, clinical training (Persad et al, 2008). Most of these hours are taught by instructors without current publications in the field.

下面这部分所有内容都是从第二个文献中改写或者逐字逐句照抄的,但是因为学生没有给出作者Spike的信息,读者会误认为这是学生自己的想法。

By watching episodes of Scrubs, however, medical students would have the chance to watch people and hear their voices, providing a much better test of clinical skills of observation than you can get from reading words on a page. One must see a patient’s body language and hear her tone of voice if one is to become a better observer, and watching the patients on television would provide a good opportunity for medical students to do so.

关于empathy这一点的确是学生自己想法,但是这个想法其实是基于Spike这个文献的基础上的。

Perhaps even more significantly, medical students would be introduced to certain issues, and while the experiences may not be their own, they would be effective in helping them to understand those experiences as they empathize with the characters.

符合学术规范的版本

在这个版本中,每个句子中都提到了原文中的作者,这清楚地表明了这一段话中的所有信息都来源于Persad等人。同时,这段话里面还正确使用了APA引用格式指出了原文。另外,通过使用“Professor Jeffrey Spike (2008) proposes ”,介绍了原文作者的信息,这段话很好地在学生自己的想法和引用文献之间设置了一个明确的界限。

In order to advocate the use of the sitcom Scrubs as part of the medical education system, it is also important to look at the current bioethical curriculum. Medical school curriculum does not focus adequately on the moral issues that doctors face in the clinic. In fact, according to Persad et al. (2008), only about one percent of teaching time throughout the four years of medical school is spent on ethics. As the researchers argue, this presents a problem because the students are being taught about ethical issues before they have a chance to experience those issues themselves. They also note that more than sixty percent of instructors teaching bioethics to medical students have no recent publications in the subject.

Professor Jeffrey Spike (2008) proposes an unconventional solution: watching Scrubs. As he notes, simply in viewing the show, “watching people and hearing their voices provide much better tests of clinical skills of observation than merely reading words on a page”(p. 12). Perhaps even more significantly, medical students would be introduced to certain ethical dilemmas, and while the experiences may not be their own, they would be effective in helping them to understand those experiences as they empathize with the characters.

3)Paper代写:避免不充分地Paraphrase

当你做paraphrase时,你的任务是用你自己的语言来提炼出原文的想法。而不是简单地改几个词语。相反,你必须用自己的话完全重述原文的想法。如果你的语言太接近原文,那么即使你提供引用信息,这也是论文抄袭的行文。

为了确保你使用自己的语言,最好是阅读原文并且理解原文的基础上,在paraphrase的时候把原文贩放在一边。通过这种方式,你可以迫使自己提炼原作者的想法并且用新的方式表达出来。一旦你完成草稿之后,你需要再一次回顾原文的内容,并且确保你没有使用原文的词汇或句子结构。如果你想要使用原文来表示强调,那么必须使用双引号进行直接引用。

原文:

So in Romeo and Juliet, understandably in view of its early date, we cannot find that tragedy has fully emerged from the moral drama and the romantic comedy that dominated in the public theaters of Shakespeare’s earliest time. Here he attempted an amalgam of romantic comedy and the tragic idea, along with the assertion of a moral lesson which is given the final emphasis—although the force of that lesson is switched from the lovers to their parents. But tragedy is necessarily at odds with the moral: it is concerned with a permanent anguishing situation, not with one that can either be put right or be instrumental in teaching the survivors to do better.

–Leech, Clifford. “The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet.” Critical Essays on Romeo and Juliet. Ed. Joseph A. Porter. New York: G.K. Hall, 1997. 20. Print.

抄袭版本

这个版本就是不充分地改写,是论文抄袭的一种形式。因为只是简单地换了几个词语,比如将”amalgam”换成了”mixture”,将”assertion of a moral lesson”换成了”asserts a moral lesson”,将”force”换成了 “impact”。但是其他的文字是原封不动的。

In his essay, “The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,” Clifford Leech suggests that rather than being a straight tragedy, Romeo and Juliet is a mixture of romantic comedy and the tragic idea, and that it asserts a moral lesson which is given the final emphasis. The impact of the moral lesson is switched from the lovers to the parents (20).

符合学术规范版本 #1 (充分地改写,并且带有引用信息)

在这个版本中,学生用自己的语言介绍了原作者的想法,同时使用了正确的MLA引用格式。

In his essay, “The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,” Clifford Leech suggests that there is more to Romeo and Juliet than simply a gloom-and-doom tragedy of two people destined to die for their illicit love. According to Leech, Romeo and Juliet is part romantic comedy, part tragedy, part morality tale in which the moral lesson is learned at the end. But this moral lesson comes with a twist: Since the lovers are dead, their parents experience the consequences of their actions (20).

符合学术规范版本 #2 (直接引用,并且带有引用信息)

在这个版本中,我们使用了直接引用并且提供了MLA格式的引用信息。

In his essay, “The Moral Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet,” Clifford Leech suggests that there is more to Romeo and Juliet than simply a gloom-and-doom tragedy of two people destined to die for their illicit love. According to Leech, in Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare “attempted an amalgam of romantic comedy and the tragic idea, along with the assertion of a moral lesson which is given the final emphasis—although the force of that lesson is switched from the lovers to their parents” (20).

4)Paper代写:Paraphrase时必须给出引用信息

paper代写 避免抄袭 Paraphrase

当你使用自己的语言来描述其他人的想法时,这个想法仍然属于原始材料的作者。因此只是充分地改写原文还是不够的,即使你已经明显改变了措辞,你也需要提供引用来源。与直接引用一样,当你paraphrase的时候,你只是为读者展现了原文的一部分,所以你应该为读者提供足够的信息,以便他们可以查找到原文。其实避免论文抄袭有一个非常简单的诀窍,只要不是你自己提出的想法,你都需要给原文提供credit,不管是通过直接引用还是进行充分地paraphrase。

原文

The form of military compensation also limits the ability of military families to adapt to financial crises, potentially forcing them to turn to creditors. Much of military compensation comes in the form of non-fungible in-kind goods and services, rather than a traditional paycheck. Military health care, future tuition assistance, military housing, military food, access to commissaries, and access to military recreational facilities and entertainment are all important components of the compensation package for military personnel. Military recruiters understandably use these side benefits as a way of explaining and justifying relatively low military pay. Nevertheless, the non-fungible nature of non-cash compensation prevents military personnel from converting a significant portion of their resources to overcome income shocks and unexpected expenses.

–Graves, S.M., & Peterson, C.L. (2005). Predatory lending and the military: The law and geography of “payday” loans in military towns. Ohio State Law Journal 66 , 27.

抄袭版本

这个版本直接用到了原文的想法,虽然进行了充分地改写,我们也需要提供原文作者的信息。

Besides the problem of low wages, however, military members are also faced with the reality that much of their compensation is not paid in cash. While civilians can allot their cash earnings to pay for, say, car repairs, a military household cannot convert their illiquid medical, housing, food, or tuition assistance benefits into cash to cover unexpected expenses. As a result, many military personnel find that the amount and the type of compensation they receive are not conducive to smoothing temporary spikes in expenditures.

符合学术规范的版本

这个版本明确给出了原文作者的信息。

According to Graves and Peterson (2005), military members are faced not only with low wages, but with the reality that much of their compensation is not paid in cash. While civilians can allot their cash earnings to pay for, say, car repairs, a military household cannot convert their illiquid medical, housing, food, or tuition assistance benefits into cash to cover unexpected expenses. Graves and Peterson further explain that many military personnel find that the amount and the type of compensation they receive are not conducive to smoothing temporary spikes in expenditures.

5)Paper代写:直接引用必须给出引用信息

当你用双引号标注直接引用时,你向读者说明了你是别的地方获取了这些信息。但是这还是不够的。你还需要指出原文作者的信息,同时帮助你的读者方便查找到原文。如果你的读者想要了解关于该主题的更多信息,他们应该通过你的引用文献很方便地找到原文。所以,直接引用后面必须跟着引用信息。

原文:

More interested in the legal and moral aspects of world order than in the economic agenda supported by Hamiltonians, Wilsonians typically believe that American interests require that other countries accept basic American values and conduct both their foreign and domestic affairs accordingly. This school has much deeper roots farther back in American history than is sometimes recognized.

–Mead, Walter Russell. Special Providence. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.

抄袭版本

虽然这里面给出了双引号,表明这句句子来源于别的文章,但是没有给出原文作者的信息。

Wilsonians take the position “that American interests require that other countries accept basic American values and conduct both their foreign and domestic affairs accordingly.” An analysis of President Obama’s foreign policy goals, as articulated in his inaugural address, reveals strong Wilsonian tendencies.

符合学术规范的版本

这个版本非常规范地使用了MLA格式给出了原文的引用信息。

Wilsonians take the position “that American interests require that other countries accept basic American values and conduct both their foreign and domestic affairs accordingly” (Mead 88). An analysis of President Obama’s foreign policy goals, as articulated in his inaugural address, reveals strong Wilsonian tendencies.

6)Paper代写:避免抄袭同学的想法

在某些课上,老师会建议学生之间一起合作,互相讨论想法。即使在这样的情况下,你也必须了解写作部分是否是要求你独立完成的,或者是小组可以一起完成的。大多数情况下,写作或者计算的部分都会要求个人独立完成。不过,我们建议你和同学之间多做讨论,从他人那里得到反馈,并且根据反馈来及时修改你的论文。只是我们还是需要分清楚你自己的想法和他人的想法。如果你引用了他人的想法,需要在论文中明确说明。

那么在与同学讨论中得到的想法应该如何做引用呢?课堂讨论中提出的想法通常是大家一起合作的结果,往往不是一个人思考的产物。但是,如果有某一个学生在讨论中明确提出一个想法,而你在论文中引用了这个想法,那么你应该提供这个学生的引用信息。在其他情况下,如果课堂讨论给了你一些想法和灵感,你可以在论文中加一个脚注,让你的读者知道讨论的信息。比如,你正在写关于The Things They Carried这本书的论文,并且在某次课堂讨论中得到了想法,你可以在论文脚注上标注一下“I am indebted to the members of my Expos 20 section for sparking my thoughts about the role of the narrator as Greek Chorus in Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried.”,对你的同学表示感谢。

大家不仅要认识到论文抄袭在学术界的严重性,更需要了解如何避免论文抄袭。 最简单的也最容易避免的抄袭必定是有意为之的,比如你抄袭同学的文章,或者从书籍、网站或者学术文章中复制内容,而没有提供引用信息,那这就是赤裸裸的抄袭。不管你是因为时间紧张,或者担心自己论文写不好,或者是因为不理解论文的要求,也绝不要抄袭。不管是什么情况,比如迟交论文或者说交一篇写得很差的论文,结果也比直接抄袭要来的好。

意外抄袭的结果同样十分严重,应该不惜一切代价避免。论文抄袭这个行为,无论你是否是有意为之,你都需要承担责任。作为学术界的一员,你必须尊重他人的想法和创意,就像你必须尊重其他不属于你的任何财产一样。无论你是故意抄袭还是偶然剽窃,都应如此。

避免意外造成抄袭的最佳方法有以下几点

-了解论文的要求,而且明确你的论文观点。

-在查找资料的过程中, 系统并且谨慎地来记录所有的文献。换句话说,如果你清楚地知道你的论文要回答一个什么样的问题,以及你的论文以哪些文献为基础,并且在整个写作的过程中都保持谨慎的态度,认真记录笔记,那么你就可以有效并且合理地利用文献,更重要的是,完成一篇成功地论文。

-如果你在写论文的时候有任何关于抄袭的问题,你都可以向教授询问。而不是等到把文章交上去了之后,再提出问题。因为你一旦上交了作业,那么你就需要对你的滥用文献的行为负责。

paper代写 如何避免论文抄袭

除了以上几个最基本的原则之外,我们下面来详细介绍如何做好文献的收集,避免论文抄袭的情况发生。

Paper代写避免抄袭:仔细记录文献来源

纸质的书籍和期刊文章很容易保存和整理,但是在撰写论文的时候,整理和保存电子资源同样重要。在保存期刊文章的PDF文件时,请确保建立一个文件夹,保存在电脑上。当你查阅网站时,请把网址存放在一个单独的文件里面, 以便你之后可以返回网站,并且正确引用该网址。我们还建议你把网站上的相关页面打印出来,并且确保记录完整的URL链接和打印材料的日期。因为电子资源不是特别稳定,你所引用的网页随时有可能被删除,因此会将你的读者引导到不存在的网页来源上。因此,在引用网页资源时,需要特别注意你查看的日期,查看网页最近更新的日期,同时更新网页链接。在你最后上交论文之前,最后确保一次网页链接是否有效。如果在你提交论文之前,你发现你所引用的某个网站链接已经失效,你需要考虑是否需要替换成新的文献来源。还有一个方法,就是你可以上交你打印出来的网页资料。

Paper代写避免抄袭:正确理解文献来源

在查看文献资源的时候,你需要确保你了解文献所在的context,背景知识。尤其是在使用网络资源的时候,需要特别注意,因为有时候你可能只看到了一个单独网页上的信息,而忽视了整个网站上的背景知识。比如,当你引用了某个网页上对“communism 共产主义”这个词的定义时,你如果忽视了整个网站的政治立场,那么你所引用的定义很有可能是带有政治偏见的。另外,当你搜索文献的时候,搜索结果通常是某一个特定的网页,而非网站首页。因此,你需要特别留意文献的背景知识。

Paper代写避免抄袭:提前规划

很多时候,Research的过程会比你预期的更为耗时。所以一定要预留出足够的时间来搜索文献,整理笔记,并且思考如何将这些文献运用到你的论文当中。当你临时抱佛脚的时候,尤其容易粗心大意酿成错误。正如我们在上文中提到的,因为粗心大意造成的抄袭和有意的抄袭后果一样严重。

Paper代写避免抄袭:将草稿和文献分开

在写作论文的时候,我们建议使用纸质资源,或者你可以把网络资源保存在一个文档中,而非使用在线的版本。保持一个这样的习惯,不仅可以降低论文抄袭的风险,而且你在阅读文献、记录笔记的时候,都会非常方便,可以帮助你最有效地理解和使用文献资源。

Paper代写避免抄袭:将笔记和草稿分开

在写作论文的所有阶段,请务必将你的研究笔记和你的草稿分开,这样可以确保你不会直接复制文献中的内容。在research阶段,整理笔记是非常有用的方法,可以帮助你分清楚你自己的想法和文献中的想法。

Paper代写避免抄袭:Paraphrase时明确说明来源

当你在Paraphrase材料时,最好的是将原文的quotation直接复制粘贴到你的笔记当中,然后再进行改写。用你自己的话把这些信息表达出来可以帮助你确保你对原来的文献进行了思考,并且可以将它合理地运用到你的论文中。同时,在做笔记的时候需要注明原文的作者和引用信息。

此外,避免使用过多的paraphrase,因为老师想要看到的是你个人独特的想法,而不是单纯的改写其他文献。

Paper代写避免抄袭:避免参考同学的论文

如果你的课程需要进行peer review或者是workshop,你会有机会阅读你同学的论文。这是一种交流想法和获得反馈非常有效的方式。如果在这个过程当中,你发现同学的方法值得借鉴,你想要运用到你自己的论文中,你必须给出这个想法的来源,并且给你的同学credit。在这里需要注意的是,你不能将你同学的想法作为论文的Thesis,但是你可以将这些想法运用到论文当中,作为一个counterargument。

另一方面,如果你发现自己写论文的时候没有灵感,或者写到一半遇到瓶颈,在这个时候,请不要参考同学的文章,因为这个时候很可能你会情不自禁地抄袭他人的想法。当你在写论文的时候遇到任何瓶颈,正确的方法是和导师及时沟通,或者去Writing Center寻求写作建议。

Paper代写避免抄袭:及时做好引用

在你引用或者是改写某个文献的时候,当时你就应该做好citation了。而不是等到最后文章final draft再来加citation。在写论文的整个过程中,你都需要做好引用,包括笔记、草稿和终稿这几个阶段。如果没有及时做好引用,你很容易就忘记你是从哪里得到的引用或者从哪里得到的想法,并最终导致意外的论文抄袭。

Paper代写避免抄袭:合理使用双引号

如果是直接引用,不管引用的是一个很短的句子或者是一个短语,都需要用双引号标出。

Paper代写避免抄袭:保存好所有文献

在写作和修改文章的过程中,请确保你在你的笔记和草稿中准确记录了你的文献。即使在论文上交了之后,也请保存好这些材料。保留好这些详细的记录以及将你的草稿和笔记分开,是避免论文抄袭的好习惯。另外,如果你被老师要求解释你的写作过程,你也可以根据你的笔记来回忆你的写作思路。

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