新手必备:2019美国研究生GMAT考试题型全解析

GMAT 考试主要考察考生的分析、推理、论证和表达思维的能力。 GMAT考试包括分析性写作。GMAT考试包含4个部分10大题型,无论是出题形式还是考察内容都十分复杂。今天我们为大家详细介绍所有GMAT考试部分和考试题型。

GMAT考试介绍

GMAT考试全称为Graduate Management Admission Test,是一种标准化考试,目前被广泛用作工商管理硕士的入学考试。GMAT的主办方GMAC(Graduate Management Admission Council)是总部位于美国的一个非营利性教育协会,其成员包括世界各地许多知名的商学院。因此,GMAT成绩获得全球近7000个商科管理研究生项目认可。

GMAT不仅考查申请人的语言能力和数学能力,还要测试其头脑反应、逻辑思维和解决实际问题的能力。GMAT考试分为四个部分,每个部分的考察重点如下:

Analytical Writing Assessment :衡量学生的批判性思考能力以及思想表达能力

Integrated Reasoning :衡量学生分析数据和评估以多种格式呈现的信息的能力

Quantitative Reasoning :衡量学生使用推理技巧分析数据和得出结论的能力

Verbal Reasoning :衡量学生阅读和理解书面材料,评估论据和纠正书面材料以符合标准书面英语的能力

GMAT总分值为200-800,为数学与词汇部分成绩的总和(分析性写作与综合推理部分不计入总成绩,而是单独汇报)。Analytical Writing Assessment和Integrated Reasoning不计入总分,但如果两位实力相似的学生,这两个部分的成绩会是学校的重点参考对象。

GMAT考试时长为3 1/2小时,提供两个8分钟的可选休息,分别在30分钟分析写作及30分钟综合推理之后,75分钟数学之前和数学之后,75分钟语文之前。如果休息时间超出,随后的考试时间将被自动扣除。考试过程中,考生可以要求临时休息,但考试时间将会被自动扣除。在考试开始前,考生可以自由选择不同的部分出现的顺序,一但选定之后不能修改。

GMAT考试结构

需要注意的是,GMAT的数学和语文部分难度是计算机自适应的,这意味着测试的难度根据考生的能力水平实时定制。这个功能不仅缩短了完成考试的时间,而且相较传统的考试能够更精确地测试考生的能力。

在每个考试部分开始时,考生会接触到中等难度的问题。在考生回答考题的同时,计算机会对考生的答案进行评分,并根据评分结果来决定下一道问题。正确的答案一般而言将增加此后出现的考题难度,而错误的答案通常会将降低考题的难度。

GMAT 考试题型 考试时间

1)Analytical Writing Assessment 写作

考试时间:30 minutes 1 question

题目类型:Analysis of an Argument

得分:0-6

考生在考试中分析的论证均为一般性题目,有些与商业相关,有些则涉及其他方面。具体的商业知识或其他领域的知识并非完成该题的前提条件。该题仅评估考生的分析性写作能力。考生要基于一项给定的论证,分析论证背后的推理和假设,然后对该论证的有效性进行批判性评价。

GMAT写作例题:

The following appeared in the editorial section of a monthly business news magazine:

“Most companies would agree that as the risk of physical injury occurring on the job increases, the wages paid to employees should also increase. Hence it makes financial sense for employers to make the workplace safer: they could thus reduce their payroll expenses and save money.”

Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion.

You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion.

2)Integrated Reasoning 逻辑

考试时间:30 minutes,12 questions

题目类型:图表解读(Graphics Interpretation),二段式分析(Two-Part Analysis),表格分析(Table Analysis),多源推理(Multi-Source Reasoning)

得分:1-8

这一部分,主要衡量考生对不同来源、多种形式的信息进行评估的能力。

GMAT逻辑例题:

GRE逻辑例题

3)Quantitative Reasoning 数学

考试时间:62 minutes,31 questions

题目类型:Data Sufficiency,Problem Solving

得分:6-51

这一部分,考核的是考生根据基础定量推理技巧,分析数据和归纳总结的能力。以多项选择题的方式,测试考生解决问题和分析数据的能力。

GMAT数学例题:

Data Sufficiency

If u > t, r > q, s > t, and t > r, which of the following must be true?

1) u > s

2) s > q

3) u > r

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II

(E) II and III

答案:(E)

Problem Solving

If a real estate agent received a commission of 6 percent of the selling price of a certain house, what was the selling price of the house?

(1) The selling price minus the real estate agent’s commission was $84,600.

(2) The selling price was 250 percent of the original purchase price of $36,000.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

答案: (D)

4)Verbal Reasoning 语文

考试时间:65 minutes,36 questions

题目类型:Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, Sentence Correction

得分:6-51

这一部分也会以多项选择题的方式,衡量考生在阅读和理解书面材料、审视推理论据以及改正书面材料使其符合标准书面英语规范的能力。

GMAT 语文例题:

Reading Comprehension

Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of information for students. My research suggests, however, that textbooks that address the place of Native Americans within the history of the United States distort history to suit a particular cultural value system. In some textbooks, for example, settlers are pictured as more humane, complex, skillful, and wise than Native Americans. In essence, textbooks stereotype and depreciate the numerous Native American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the European conquest of the New World denotes the superiority of European cultures. Although textbooks evaluate Native American architecture, political systems, and homemaking, I contend that they do it from an ethnocentric, European perspective without recognizing that other perspectives are possible.

One argument against my contention asserts that, by nature, textbooks are culturally biased and that I am simply underestimating children’s ability to see through these biases. Some researchers even claim that by the time students are in high school, they know they cannot take textbooks literally. Yet substantial evidence exists to the contrary. Two researchers, for example, have conducted studies that suggest that children’s attitudes about particular cultures are strongly influenced by the textbooks used in schools. Given this, an ongoing, careful review of how school textbooks depict Native Americans is certainly warranted.

Which of the following would most logically be the topic of the paragraph immediately following the passage?

(A) Specific ways to evaluate the biases of United States history textbooks
(B) The centrality of the teacher’s role in United States history courses
(C) Nontraditional methods of teaching United States history
(D) The contributions of European immigrants to the development of the United States
(E) Ways in which parents influence children’s political attitudes

答案: (A)

Critical Reasoning

The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

(A) Labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.
(B) Importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country Y.
(C) The tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Y.
(D) The fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Q.
(E) It takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radio in Country Q than it does in Country Y.

答案: (C)

Sentence Correction

While larger banks can afford to maintain their own data-processing operations, many smaller regional and community banks are finding that the cost associated with upgrading data-processing equipment and with the development and maintenance of new products and technical staff are prohibitive.

(A) cost associated with
(B) costs associated with
(C) costs arising from
(D) cost of
(E) costs of

答案: (B)

GMAT备考指南下载:https://cl.ly/464de78e5815